The concept of symbolic planning contrasts with FEMA language of “getting real”. In order to move beyond symbolic planning to real planning, first there is likely to be a need to admit that the existing plan is not completely real. That is, it cannot be operationalized to achieve even the most well intentioned objectives. The 2013 New York City lawsuit appears to be moving the City in the direction.
Paul Hewett, in Organizational Networks and Emergence During Disaster Preparedness: The Case Of An Emergency Assistance Registry (2013) applies the concept of symbolic planning to registries: “In the mold of what Clarke (1999) called symbolic planning, communities that establish registries solely for compliance may do so to indicate to their citizens that they are doing something about the special needs problem. Communities that appear to fit this category are those that place caveats in their registration marketing and registration material indicating that enrollment is not a promise of rescue or special assistance during a disaster. However, such statements do show recognition on the part of the community that some type of implied contract exists with the enrollee.” (p 14)
The Lee Clarke book he cites, “Mission improbable: Using fantasy documents to tame disaster” is required reading in some FEMA courses. A book description of Clarke’s book is on Amazon:
does the government or a business plan for an unimaginable
disaster-a meltdown at a nuclear power plant, a gigantic oil spill, or
nuclear attack? Lee Clarke examines actual attempts to "prepare" for
these catastrophes and finds that the policies adopted by corporations
government agencies are fundamentally rhetorical: the plans have no
succeed, yet they serve both the organizations and the public as
control, order, and stability. These "fantasy documents" attempt to
inspire confidence in organizations, but for Clarke they are disturbing
persuasions, soothing our perception that we ultimately cannot control
“For example, Clarke studies corporations' plans for cleaning up oil spills in Prince William Sound prior to the Exxon Valdez debacle, and he finds that the accepted strategies were not just unrealistic but completely untenable. Although different organizations were required to have a cleanup plan for huge spills in the sound, a really massive spill was unprecedented, and the accepted policy was little more than a patchwork of guesses based on (mostly unsuccessful) cleanups after smaller accidents.
“While we are increasingly skeptical of big organizations, we still have no choice but to depend on them for protection from large-scale disasters. We expect their specialists to tell the truth, and yet, as Clarke points out, reassuring rhetoric (under the guise of expert prediction) may have no basis in fact or truth because no such basis is attainable.
“In uncovering the dangers of planning when implementation is a fantasy, Clarke concludes that society would be safer, smarter, and fairer if organizations could admit their limitations.”
“We don’t plan for easy in FEMA…we plan for real.”
© 2014 June Isaacson Kailes, Disability Policy Consultant, All Rights Reserved.
Created1/1/14 | Updated 07.10.14